Business Wire

New Genome Study of B. longum subsp. longum by Morinaga Milk May Explain the Species' Wide Distribution across All Ages

Jaa

Bifidobacterium longum is one of only a handful of species of gut bacteria that is widely present among people of all ages, including infants, adults and the elderly.1,2 Today, Morinaga Milk Industry Co., Ltd. (TOKYO:2264), a leading Japanese dairy product company, announced the results of a groundbreaking new genome study, in collaboration with the SFI Research Centre APC Microbiome Ireland, that may explain why.

This press release features multimedia. View the full release here: http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20180214005461/en/

(Fig.1) Distribution of gut microbiota in healthy Japanese subjects (Graphic: Business Wire)

(Fig.1) Distribution of gut microbiota in healthy Japanese subjects (Graphic: Business Wire)

The human gut is colonized by a collection of microbes (microbiome) which play an integral role in human health, by helping us digest our food, produce certain vitamins, regulate our immune system, and protect us against pathogenic bacteria. This current study revealed that one bacterial species, B. longum subsp. longum, demonstrates a wide variation in its genes that increases its competitiveness in the gut environment, because its genome adapts to the changing diet of each generation. In addition, it suggests that B. longum subsp. longum is extensively transmitted between relatives, and that such transmission does not occur only between mothers and infants, as previously believed, but also between other family members and even across three generations.3

Study Overview
For the study, a total of 453 fecal samples were collected from healthy Japanese subjects aged 0 to 104 years, as a means of measuring the bacterial species present in the gut. In total, 871 different bacterial species were detected (Fig.1), but only three species (Blautia wexlerae, Streptococcus salivarius and Bifidobacterium longum) were found to be present in more than 50% of the subjects across all generations.

This finding highlights the broad distribution of B. longum across the human lifespan. In order to identify the mechanism that allows a specific species to be so ubiquitous, Morinaga, in collaboration with the SFI Research Centre APC Microbiome Ireland at the National University of Ireland, Cork, performed a comparative genome analysis on various strains of B. longum subsp. longum to determine genetic differences among strains isolated from people of varying ages.

B. longum subsp. longum Strains Separated into Seven Clusters
Comparative analyses involving 145 B. longum representatives obtained from Japanese subjects, including 32 publicly available genomes, showed that B. longum subsp. longum strains can be grouped into seven clusters depending on the presence of prophage (i.e. viral material) and/or a megaplasmid (i.e. genetic material being present outside of the bacterial chromosome).

No correlation was observed between isolated strains and subject age, although a significant negative correlation was found between the number of identified genes present in the strains and subject age. This suggests that B. longum subsp. longum strains isolated from younger subjects possess, on average, a higher number of genes compared to the ones from older subjects. Researchers performed further investigation to identify genes in each strain isolated from different age groups, and as a result, gene families were classified into four groups: infant, adult, elderly-predominant gene families, and genes that exhibit no relationship with subjects age (Fig.2).

Infant-associated Strains More Adapted to Utilize Carbohydrates Found in Human Milk
Researchers frequently found strains in B. longum subsp. longum from younger subjects, which possess genetic code that is related to sugar utilization, including that of the sugar sialic acid which is one of the components of Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs) that are found in breast milk. This characteristic may be an adaptive strategy of B. longum to survive the infant gut environment by utilizing components from the mother’s breast milk.

Elderly-associated Strains More Adapted to Utilize Insoluble Fiber Found in Vegetables
Researchers also observed a high number of strains in B. longum subsp. longum isolated from elderly subjects that contain unique genetic information thought to encode extracellular α-L-arabinofuranosidases (Arabinofuranosidase cluster2 in Fig.2). These enzymes are able to break down complex sugars that are present in plant material, such as vegetables and cereals, all of which contain a high proportion of insoluble fiber. Elderly Japanese people are reported to eat much more vegetables than younger people4, so this genetic trait to digest fiber-containing foods may allow B. longum to persist in the elderly gut.

In addition, two clusters of genes indicative of how bacteria respond to environmental stress were found in higher numbers among strains of B. longum subsp. longum isolated from elderly subjects, including the heat shock protein HSP20.5 Heat shock proteins are produced to help an organism respond to stress, such as extreme heat, oxygen exposure and starvation. It is reasonable to assume that strains with the ability to respond to stress are better able to adapt and survive.

Certain Strains Have Been Transmitted Between Father and Child, Husband and Wife, and Even Across Three Generations
Several B. longum subsp. longum strains, which had been isolated from many different members of the same family, were shown to contain an essentially identical genetic content. This finding suggests that these strains had been transmitted between various family members, not only between mother and child, which has been previously reported.6

“It is a remarkable finding that not only was transmission between mother and child observed, but also between father and child and even between husband and wife,” stated Dr. Toshitaka Odamaki, Manager of Microbiota Research Dept. at Next Generation Science Institute of Morinaga and lead researcher of the study. “This is also the first report of a particular strain of gut microbiota that appears to have been transmitted across three generations in a family, for instance, between a grandmother, mother, and infant,” he added.

“We assume this variety of genes and high transfer level of the bacterial species within families is the survival strategy of B. longum subsp. longum and is key to its wide distribution across the human lifespan,” explained Dr. Odamaki. “This report could provide a promising foundation for future research aimed at identifying the best probiotic candidates at each key life stage,” he continued.

APC Microbiome Ireland is very interested in how the human microbiota changes over the life stages, in response to exposure to different environmental factors such as habitual diet, antibiotic exposure, and levels of stress”, said Prof Douwe van Sinderen, project leader at APC Microbiome Ireland. He furthermore emphasized the attraction of such a joint scientific effort: “This was a particularly fruitful and gratifying collaborative project with an industry partner, Morinaga, because we were able to join our complementary skills and know-how allowing us to generate insights that we would otherwise not have been able to obtain on our own”.

Dr. Odamaki from Morinaga discussed these findings at the IPA World Congress + Probiota Barcelona held in Barcelona, Spain on February 7th -9th, 2018.

About Morinaga
Morinaga Milk Industry Co., Ltd. is one of the leading dairy product companies in Japan. Morinaga started research on bifidobacteria in the 1960s, inspired by the fact that bifidobacteria are the predominant bacteria residing in the intestines of breast-fed infants. In 1969, Morinaga isolated its flagship strain Bifidobacterium longum BB536 from an infant. Morinaga excels in innovative technology and offers various dairy products and other beneficial functional ingredients to customers around the world.

ABOUT APC MICROBIOME IRELAND
APC Microbiome Ireland (APC; http://apc.ucc.ie) is a world leading research institute which was formed in 2003 with funding from Science Foundation Ireland and in conjunction with key industry partners. It represents a seamless collaboration between University College Cork and Teagasc (the Irish Agriculture and Food Development Authority).It is widely recognised that the gut microbiota plays an important role in human health and has become one of the most dynamic, complex and exciting areas of research in both food and pharmaceutical arenas. Over the last decade the APC has established itself as one of the leading global centres in gut microbiota research. The APC has made several landmark discoveries and has published over 1,700 research articles in peer-reviewed journals, generating many journal covers and associated editorials. The APC comprises over 300 individuals, from the scientific Principal Investigators (the APC Faculty) funded by the partner Institutions, the management team, and a dedicated group of research scientists, research assistants and postgraduate students.

References
1.  

Turroni et al., Applied and environmental microbiology (2009)

2.

Francoise Gavini, Microb. Ecol. Health Dis (2001)

3.

Odamaki et al., Scientific Reports (2018)

4. National Health and Nutrition Survey 2015
5.

Ventura et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol (2007)

6.

Makino et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol (2011)

Contact information

Morinaga Milk Industry Co., Ltd.
Mai Nozawa, +81-3-3798-0152
m-nozawa@morinagamilk.co.jp
http://www.morinagamilk.co.jp/english/

Tietoja julkaisijasta

For more than 50 years, Business Wire has been the global leader in press release distribution and regulatory disclosure.

Tilaa tiedotteet sähköpostiisi

Haluatko tietää asioista ensimmäisten joukossa? Kun tilaat mediatiedotteemme, saat ne sähköpostiisi välittömästi julkaisuhetkellä. Tilauksen voit halutessasi perua milloin tahansa.

Lue lisää julkaisijalta Business Wire

Process Systems Enterprise: gPROMS FormulatedProducts 1.4 Includes Enhanced Capabilities Linking Digital Design to Digital Operations19.4.2019 10:58:00 EESTTiedote

Process Systems Enterprise (PSE), the Advanced Process Modelling company, today released version 1.4 of gPROMS FormulatedProducts, the mechanistic model-based environment for integrated digital design of robust formulated products and their manufacturing processes, and related digital process operation. This release introduces major enhancements to both the gPROMS FormulatedProducts model libraries and the underlying gPROMS platform 6.0, including morphological crystallizer and sensor models to capture particle size and shape evolution, enhanced continuous direct compression models and improved wet granulation models. Platform enhancements include support for cluster computing, to significantly speed up execution of parameter estimation and other complex numerical solutions, and comprehensive global system analysis of dynamic systems for rapid exploration of the time-varying decision space and systematic risk and uncertainty analysis. Version 1.4 also introduces two key usability enhan

LOXAM Contributes to the Reconstruction of Notre Dame De Paris Cathedral19.4.2019 10:44:00 EESTTiedote

In the wake of the Notre Dame de Paris blaze on Monday 15 April, Loxam the leading equipment rental company in Europe is playing its part in the reconstruction project of the partly destroyed cathedral. A rental operator in the construction equipment, LOXAM pledges to provide, free of charge, machines to the companies and tradesmen who will take part in these restoration works for the scheduled duration of five years. “Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral is the legacy of accomplished builders that we ought to preserve. As a committed rental operator, Loxam wishes to contribute to the rehabilitation of this monument by providing equipment for an overall 10-million € value over the upcoming five years” Gérard DEPREZ, President of LOXAM, indicates. With a fleet of over 200,000 machines, Loxam is meeting the needs of all tradesmen operating on this worksite. View source version on businesswire.com: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20190419005025/en/ Contact information PRESS : Virginie Ada

IFF to Release First Quarter 2019 Results May 618.4.2019 23:15:00 EESTTiedote

Regulatory News: International Flavors & Fragrances Inc. (NYSE:IFF) (Euronext Paris: IFF) (TASE: IFF), a leading innovator of scent, taste, and nutrition, announced that it will release its first quarter 2019 earnings results following the market close on Monday, May 6, 2019. The management team will host a live webcast on Tuesday, May 7, 2019 at 10:00 a.m. ET to discuss results and outlook with the investor community. Investors may access the live webcast and accompanying slide presentation on the Company's website at ir.iff.com. For those unable to listen to the live webcast, a recorded version will be made available for replay. Meet IFF International Flavors & Fragrances Inc. (NYSE:IFF) (Euronext Paris: IFF) (TASE: IFF) is a leading innovator of scent, taste, and nutrition, with 97 manufacturing facilities, 105 R&D centers, and 39,000 customers globally. At the heart of our company, we are fueled by a sense of discovery, constantly asking “what if?”. That passion for exploration dri

Gilead Sciences to Release First Quarter 2019 Financial Results on Thursday, May 2, 201918.4.2019 23:05:00 EESTTiedote

Gilead Sciences, Inc. (Nasdaq: GILD) announced today that its first quarter 2019 financial results will be released on Thursday, May 2, after the market closes. At 4:30 p.m. Eastern Time, Gilead’s management will host a conference call to discuss the company’s financial results for the first quarter 2019 and provide a business update. The live webcast of the call can be accessed at the company’s Investors page at http://investors.gilead.com/. Please connect to the company’s website at least 15 minutes prior to the start of the call to ensure adequate time for any software download that may be required to listen to the webcast. Alternatively, please call 877-359-9508 (U.S.) or 224-357-2393 (international) and dial the conference ID 5259422 to access the call. Telephone replay will be available approximately two hours after the call through 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, May 4, 2019. To access the replay, please call 855-859-2056 (U.S.) or 404-537-3406 (international) and dial the conference ID

Andersen Global Expands Africa Presence; Signs Collaboration Agreement in Economic Hub of South Africa18.4.2019 16:30:00 EESTTiedote

Andersen Global is excited to announce the addition of its first collaborating firm in South Africa. Tabacks Attorneys and Corporate Law Advisors, headquartered in Johannesburg, South Africa, has signed a Collaboration Agreement with Andersen Global, an international association of member and collaborating firms. South Africa marks the tenth country in Africa in which Andersen Global has a presence. Led by Chairman David Woodhouse, Tabacks has a team of 27 lawyers who offer legal assistance and commercial advice to a diverse clientele in construction, manufacturing, energy, mining, explosives, retail, hospitality, logistics, pharmaceutical, property and banking industries. The firm is considered a leading law firm in South Africa, and its practice areas include competition law, commercial law, mining, employment law, environmental health & safety law, tax and litigation. “The global economy is rapidly changing, which brings unique challenges to corporate and commercial law,” said David

Amazon and Google Announce Official YouTube Apps to Launch on Fire TV; Prime Video App Coming to Chromecast and Android TV18.4.2019 16:00:00 EESTTiedote

Today, Amazon (NASDAQ: AMZN) and Google (NASDAQ: GOOGL) announced that in the coming months, the two companies will launch the official YouTube app on Amazon Fire TV devices and Fire TV Edition smart TVs, as well as the Prime Video app for streaming to Chromecast and Chromecast built-in devices. In addition, Prime Video will be broadly available across Android TV device partners, and the YouTube TV and YouTube Kids apps will also come to Fire TV later this year. This press release features multimedia. View the full release here: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20190418005212/en/ “We are excited to work with Amazon to launch the official YouTube apps on Fire TV devices worldwide,” said Heather Rivera, Global Head of Product Partnerships at YouTube. “Bringing our flagship YouTube experience to Amazon Fire TV gives our users even more ways to watch the videos and creators they love.” “We’re excited to bring the Prime Video app to Chromecast and Android TV devices, and to give our c

Uutishuoneessa voit lukea tiedotteitamme ja muuta julkaisemaamme materiaalia. Löydät sieltä niin yhteyshenkilöidemme tiedot kuin vapaasti julkaistavissa olevia kuvia ja videoita. Uutishuoneessa voit nähdä myös sosiaalisen median sisältöjä. Kaikki STT Infossa julkaistu materiaali on vapaasti median käytettävissä.

Tutustu uutishuoneeseemme